Category: Uncategorized

Pelvic Mass in Women: Let’s Bring Clarity


Hello friends,

As this topic ‘Pelvic Mass in Women’ is a vast topic and we want to bring understanding to this topic in as simple a language as possible such that it can be easily understood by everyone, we are starting an article series.

The introductory article will give you a glimpse of how will we go about it. Let’s start:

– Pelvic masses are a common finding.

– In this series, we are going to talk about gynaecological reasons for these masses, their symptoms, evaluation and treatment.

– The pathology of pelvic masses differs with each age group namely- pre-pubertal girls, adolescents, reproductive-aged women and post-menopausal women.

– We will have a discussion age group vies about concerned pathologies.

– In the discussion of uterine causes, we will discuss leiomyoma or commonly known as fibroid.

We will discuss is the pathology, hormone effects, risk factors, classification, symptoms, management options- which include drug therapy and many modalities of surgery like myomectomy and hysterectomy and their routes like hysteroscopy, laparoscopy and laparotomy.

– We will talk about adenomyosis- its pathogenesis, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and management.

– We are going to discuss masses arising from the ovary.

An ovarian mass is a vast group. Our discussion will be mainly on ovarian cystic masses and functional ovarian cysts.

– In this, we will discuss its pathogenesis, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and management.

– In tubal pathology, we will have a discussion on hydrosalpinx.

– In the next update of the article of this series, we will take one of the above-listed topics and bring more clarity on that

– Keep a watch on this article itself as a dated update will arrive soon.

Techniques Used for Imaging in Gynaecology


Hello friends,

We are starting a new series of write ups that will give information & knowledge about a major Gynaecology related topic,the first of which being

-Techniques used for imaging in gynaecology 

-The first modality is sonography

-We will discuss about the routes of sonography that are trans- abdominal and trans- vaginal

– Doppler Technology which is study of blood flow through blood vessels in pelvic organs

-We will tell you about the normal sonographic findings of female reproductive tract organs and normal condition of endometrium and evaluation of pelvic floor

-We will discuss clinical applications of sonography in determining pathological condition of uterus like fibroids and adenomyosis,endometrial abnormalities

-Pathological conditions of ovaries that include tumors and torsion

– Pelvic inflammatory disease -Benefits of 3D sonography

-We will discuss HSG or hysterosalpingography as fallopian tube’s patency test in infertility cases 

-Discussion on CT scan will include

-Normal pelvic anatomy

-Importance of CT scan after gynaec surgery and gynaec malignancy

-Discussion on MRI will include 

-Normal findings on MRI

-Uterine abnormalities like fibroids and adenomyosis

-Congenital anomalies of genital tract

-Adnexal masses

-Gynecologic malignancies of cervix, endometrium and ovaries

– so friends, you do get an idea of what all things we will discuss

-In next article update of this series we will take one of the above listed topics and have a discussion on that

All the diagnostic and imaging techniques are a great benefit in aiding  a clinician to arrive at a diagnosis timely.Opinion of an expert Radiologist means a lot. Some of these investigations like sonography/ ultrasound/ doppler sonography and MRI are free from radiation. Others like HSG and C T -Scan involve radiation .Some investigative techniques can be operated in OPD setting and others require a specialized set up

-So, friends you do get an idea of what all things we will cover under this topic ‘Preinvasive/Precancerous Lesions of The Lower Genital Tract of Women’

-In next update of article of this series we will take one of the above listed topics and bring more clarity on that

-Keep a watch on this article itself as a dated update will arrive soon.

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease-a Strangely Abnormal Pregnancy


Hello friends,

As this topic ‘Gestational Trophoblastic Disease’ is a vast topic and we want to bring understanding to this topic in as simple a language as possible such that it can be easily understood by everyone,we are starting an article series.The introductory article will give you a glimpse about how will we go about it.

Let’s start

-Gestational trophoblastic disease or GTD refers to a spectrum of interrelated but histologically distinct tumors originating from the placenta.

– These diseases are characterized by a reliable tumors marker beta HCG   and have varying tendencies towards local invasion and spread.

-Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia or GTN refers to the subset that develops malignant and cancerous sequelae.

-We will discuss incidence and risk factors of GTD.

– Hydatidiform mole or molar pregnancy is the subset which is benign or non- cancerous in nature.

-It is divided into two complete and partial hydatidiform mole. In this discussion we will see karyotype pattern, microscopic and macroscopic findings and clinical findings.

– Diagnosis of  mole is usually done by beta HCG estimation, trans- vaginal sonography and histopathology.

– Management requires suction evacuation of molar pregnancy and post molar surveillance by serial beta HCG level estimation. We will have a discussion on that.

-Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia include

-Invasive mole

-Gestational  choriocarcinoma

-Placenta like trophoblastic tumor and

-Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor

We will discuss criteria for diagnosis of GTN and their individual features.

– Most GTN cases are clinically diagnosed based on beta HCG levels.Tissue histology is also used.

-After diagnosis patients with GTN undergo thorough pre-treatment assessment including CT scan.

-Staging is done as per Gynaec society and WHO guidelines.

-This disease is divided into non-metastatic and metastatic disease.

– Treatment of GTN is either surgical or with chemotherapy.

-We will also discuss psychological consequences and subsequent pregnancy outcome of this disease.

-So, friends you do get an idea of what all things we will cover under this topic ‘Gestational Trophoblastic Disease’

-In next update of article of this series we will take one of the above listed topics and bring more clarity on that

-Keep a watch on this article itself as a dated update will arrive soon.

Medical Investigations of Couple Seeking Fertility


Hello friends,

As this topic ‘Evaluation of Couple Seeking Fertility’ is a vast topic and we want to bring understanding to this topic in as simple a language as possible such that it can be easily understood by everyone,we are starting an article series. The introductory article will give you a glimpse about how will we go about it.

Let’s start

-Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse of reasonable frequency.

– it can be subdivided into primary infertility, that is no prior pregnancies and secondary infertility referring to infertility following at least one prior conception.

– We will look into the definition of fecundability and population studies and its relation to age.

-We will discuss when should we consider investigations in a couple.

– We will have a discussion on etiology

– that is causative factors, both male and female leading to infertility.

– Medical History taking of both partners will be discussed that will include medical, surgical, medication and social aspects.

-Importance of physical examination will be explained.

-There are certain tests which determine specific causes of infertility like-

– Ovulation studies

-Tubal and pelvic factors

-Uterine abnormalities and

-Cervical factors

We will have a discussion on these factors

-We will have a separate discussion on normal and abnormal production of sperms and its evaluation.

-So, friends you do get an idea of what all things we will cover under this topic ‘Evaluation of Couple Seeking Fertility’

-In next update of article of this series we will take one of the above listed topics and bring more clarity on that -Keep a watch on this article itself as a dated update will arrive soon.



Cervical Cancer- a Leading Cause of Cancer in Women


Hello friends,

As this topic ‘Cervical Cancer‘ is a vast topic concerning women, we want to bring understanding to this topic in as simple a language as possible such that it can be easily understood by everyone,we are starting an article series.

The introductory article will give you a glimpse about how will we go about it.

Let’s start

-Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer in the women.

– While discussing incidence we will see the age pattern of those women who get this cancer.

-Infection with Human Papilloma Virus also known as HPV is the major risk factor.

-Other risk factors being low socioeconomic status, cigarette smoking, reproductive behaviour and sexual activity.

-In pathophysiology we will discuss how and where tumour cells originate along with it spread to local and distant areas.

-Histology reveals that most common sub-types of cervical carcinoma are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.

– We will discuss these types in detail and also their prognosis comparison.- Diagnosis of cervical cancer is based on its symptoms, physical examination of patient, Pap’s smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy.

-We will have a detailed discussion on each modality.

– Staging of Cancer helps in deciding the treatment options and prognosis. For cervical cancer staging is done clinically. In easy language we will explain the staging of cancer for everyone’s understanding.

-During evaluation of cervical cancer many tests are needed. They include  -Testing of blood for various parameters

– Radiologic investigations include chest X-ray, IVP, CT Scan MRI and PET scan

-Certain procedures like cystoscopy and proctoscopy may also be needed. We will have discussion on them too.

-We will have discussion on lymph node dissection and prognostic factors.- Procedures required for treatment of cervical cancer depend upon its clinical staging. it includes

– Cervical conization

-Simple or radical hysterectomy



-Chemoradiation and

-Palliative chemotherapy

-We will discuss surveillance of patient following surgery for radiotherapy.

– We will also discuss management of cervical cancer during pregnancy.

-So, friends you do get an idea of what all things we will cover under this topic ‘Cervical Cancer’

In next update of article of this series we will take one of the above listed  topics and bring more clarity on that-Keep a watch on this article itself as a dated update will arrive soon

Tuberculosis And Pregnancy

टी बी और गर्भावस्था ( (Tuberculosis And Pregnancy )

टी बी -यानि Tuberculosis की बीमारी एक जीवाणु Mycobacterium Tuberculosis की वजह से होती है।
टी बी आज भी विश्व की सबसे जानलेवा बीमारियों में से एक है।
40 लाख से भी ज़्यादा स्त्रियाँ हर साल इस बीमारी का शिकार बनती हैं और कई लाख मौतें भी होती हैं।
गर्भवती महिलाओं में सबसे ज़्यादा पायी जाने वाली टी बी फेफड़ों ( lungs ) की है।
इसके अलावा हड्डी (bones ), गुर्दा (kidney ), पेट ( abdominal ), lymph nodes , meninges ( part of brain ), यहां भी टी बी हो सकता है।

TB 1

टी बी का प्रेगनेंसी पर असर

अगर सही समय पर निदान (diagnosis ) हो जाए और संपूर्ण उपचार किया जाये तो टी बी से गर्भवती महिला और शिशु दोनों को ही कुछ भी हानि नहीं होती।
यदि ऐसा ना हो पाए या इलाज को बीच में ही छोड़ दिया जाये तो कई तरह की समस्याओं का सामना करना पड़ सकता है।
-गर्भपात ( abortion )
-पेट में ही बच्चे की मृत्यु ( intra uterine fetal death )
-गर्भ का ठीक से ना बढ़ना ( fetal growth restriction )
-नवजात शिशु की मृत्यु ( perinatal mortality )

अगर महिला का खान पान समय पर और पौष्टिक ना हो या उसमें खून की कमी हो तो उसे कई तरह की परेशानियाँ हो सकती हैं।

प्रेगनेंसी का टी बी पर असर

अगर किसी महिला को टी बी है और वह गर्भवती हो जाती है तो यह देखा गया है कि टी बी की बीमारी उससे अप्रभावित रहती है।

प्रेगनेंसी में टी बी के symptoms

प्रेगनेंसी और टी बी के लक्षण बहुत कुछ मिलते जुलते हो सकते हैं और यह जानना मुश्किल हो सकता है कि महिला को क्या हो रहा है। जैसे कि
-उबकाई या उल्टी ( nausea / vomiting )
-वज़न का कम होना
-बुखार जैसा लगना
-हृदय की धड़कन का तेज़ होना ( tachycardia )

टी बी की जाँचें
-मांटू टेस्ट ( Mantoux test )

TB 1

-छाती का एक्सरे ( Chest X- Ray )

TB 1

-बलगम की जाँच ( sputum examination )
-Biopsy , FNAC
-फेफड़ों ,पेट और हृदय के आस पास के पानी की जाँच ( Fluid from pleural, ascitic or pericardial effusion )
-रीढ़ की हड्डी के पानी की जाँच ( lumbar puncture for TB meningitis )
-दूरबीन द्वारा फेफड़ों या अमाशय को देखना
-ELISA & PCR test

टी बी का ट्रीटमेंट

टी बी की चार मुख्य दवाएं इस प्रकार हैं
– Isoniazid

इन दवाओं को छः महीने तक दिया जाता है
WHO ( World Health Organisation ), DOTS ( Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course ) को मान्यता देता है
ये सभी दवाएँ गर्भावस्था में देना सुरक्षित है।
जैसे ही टी बी का निदान हो , डॉक्टर की सलाह से इन दवाओं को शुरू कर देना चाहिए।

Drug Resistant टी बी

कभी कभी टी बी के जीवाणु पर इन मुख्य दवाओं का असर नहीं होता। इस समय कुछ अलग दवाएं इस्तेमाल करनी होती हैं । पर यह second line treatment गर्भ में पल रहे शिशु के लिए सुरक्षित नहीं है। ऐसे समय अगर गर्भवती स्त्री चाहे तो अपने डॉक्टर की सलाह से समय रहते , गर्भपात ( Abortion ) के उपाय को चुन सकती है। दवाओं के नाम इस प्रकार से हैं।

प्रसव ( Delivery ) के दौरान क्या करें

टी बी ग्रस्त महिला की प्रसव के दौरान देखभाल वैसे ही की जाती है जैसे की किसी भी दूसरी महिला की करेंगे।

नवजात शिशु की देखभाल

यह इस बात पर निर्भर करता है कि माँ की टी बी कितने ज़ोर पर है। बलगम में टी बी के जीवाणु उपस्थित हैं या नहीं। क्या माँ को drug resistant टी बी है।
नवजात शिशु की कुछ जाँचे भी करनी पड़ सकती हैं जैसे कि –
-Tuberculin test
– छाती का x -ray
इन सब जाँचों के आधार पर शिशु रोग तज्ञ ( Pediatrician ) यह निर्णय लेते हैं कि शिशु को दवा दी जानी चाहिये या नहीं।
BCG Vaccine ( टीकाकरण ) करने का निर्णय भी जाँचों की रिपोर्ट के आधार पर लिया जाता है।

टी बी और स्तनपान ( Breast Feeding )

अगर माँ की टी बी Drug Resistant है , तब स्तनपान करना वर्जित Contraindicated ) है।
बाकी सब तरह की टी बी में माँ को स्तनपान करना अनिवार्य ( Compulsory ) है।
यह हो सकता है कि शिशु को भी कुछ दवायें देने की ज़रुरत पड़े जैसे कि Isoniazid या Pyridoxine , यह दवाएँ शिशु को सुरक्षित रखती हैं।

टी बी और गर्भ निरोध

अगर महिला टी बी की दवाइयाँ ले रही होती है तब गर्भ -निरोधक गोलियाँ उसे सुरक्षित नहीं रख सकतीं। ऐसे में गर्भ निरोध के अन्य साधनों जैसे कंडोम का इस्तेमाल करने की सलाह दी जाती है।

HIV बाधित गर्भवती महिला और टी बी

TB 1

अगर महिला HIV बाधित है तो उसे टी बी होने की संभावना एक आम महिला के मुकाबले दस गुना ज़्यादा है। यहाँ महिला को जान का खतरा भी ज़्यादा है।
बुरे परिणाम बच्चे पर भी हो सकते हैं। जैसे –
-उसका समय से पहले जन्म लेना ( Prematurity )
-कमज़ोर पैदा होना ( IUGR – Intra Uterine Growth Retardation )
-शिशु का HIV बाधित हो जाना

जन्मजात ( Congenital ) टी बी

नवजात शिशु भी टी बी ग्रस्त हो सकता है।
यह बीमारी उसे अवल नाल ( Umbilical Cord ) के ज़रिये माँ के खून से मिल सकती है।
गर्भ में शिशु जिस तरल पदार्थ में तैरता है ( Amniotic Fluid ), वह भी जीवाणु युक्त हो सकता है और शिशु को संक्रमित कर सकता है।
जन्म के बाद आने वाली अंवल नाल ( Placenta and Cord ) को जाँच के लिए भेजना चाहिए ताकि संक्रमण का पता कर सकें।
अगर माँ को टी बी है तो जन्म के बाद शिशु की कुछ जाँचे की जाती हैं ताकि पता चल सके की वह संक्रमित है या नहीं।
जन्म के दूसरे या तीसरे हफ्ते से टी बी के लक्षण सामने आने लगते हैं। जैसे कि –
-बच्चे का ठीक से दूध न पीना
-कान का बहना
-त्वचा पर चकत्ते
-साँस लेने में तकलीफ़

अगर शिशु में यह लक्षण दिखाई दें और टी बी का निदान करना आवश्यक समझा जाये तो निम्नलिखित जाँचो को किया जा सकता है –
– Mantoux test
-छाती का एक्स रे ( Chest X -Ray )
– फेफड़ों और अमाशय के पानी की जाँच ( Broncho-alveolar and Gastric Lavage )

निदान होने के पश्चात उचित उपचार तुरंत शुरू कर देना चाहिए।

अगर समय रहते टी बी का निदान और सम्पूर्ण उपचार किया जाए तो Tuberculosis यानि कि टी बी भी अन्य दूसरी बीमारियों की तरह पूरी तरह से ठीक हो जाती है।

सतर्क रहें सुरक्षित रहें।

6 Things To Remember If You Are Planning To Become Pregnant

6 Things To Remember If You Are Planning To Become Pregnant

A couple looking for pregnancy visits a gynaecologist. Here are the pointers to prepare them about what they may expect during this visit.
pregnant woman
Medical history– couple will be asked about the any existing or past illnesses . If they are on any regular medication. Specific questions will be asked about presence of diabetes and epilepsy.
Similar questions will be asked about the family and if there are any genetic disorders running in the family
Social history –With growing urbanisation, nuclear families are becoming a norm. There is loss of support in terms of someone taking care of you, whether it is cooking or doing house chores. Inquiry is also done about substance abuse, alcohol consumption and smoking.
Obstetrics ( previous pregnancies ) history of woman is asked

-A general medical examination is done.
-A note of nutritional deficiencies is made

Obesity as well as extreme underweight- both these clinical conditions are commonly encountered and may come in way of achieving pregnancy normally

Exercising regularly is important to keep fit. At the same time you should not exhaust yourself. Augment heat dissipation by wearing light clothes and fluid replacement.

A few routine and at times special tests are done
-HIV-to rule out infection
-HbsAg-to rule out infection
-VDRL-to rule out infection
-HCV- to rule out infection
-Hb Electrophoresis-to know about abnormal haemoglobin and Thalassemia
-Chromosomal microarray analysis-in cases of previous pregnancy loss
-Thyroid tests- T3, T4, TSH
-Pap’s Smear

A few vaccines are recommended
-Influenza vaccine
-Rubella- a blood investigation will tell if the woman is susceptible.Those who are yet unimmunized, vaccination is done
-Varicella- Chicken pox- if not contracted previously, vaccine is given

5 Tips to Solve the Problem of Irregular Periods


1) Exercise and diet
-Regular physical exercise in the form of walking, jogging, yoga, dancing, cycling Is a must
-Regularisation of eating habits,  avoiding junk food and too much eating of outside food should be done
-Don’t skip breakfast
-Three square meals with dinner by 8 pm
-Two small in between healthy snacks on salads sprouts or nuts should be done
-Drink plenty of oral liquids
-Exercise & diet have a value as they will keep your body fit and weight under control

2)Healthy lifestyle
-Early to bed and early to rise was the ‘Mantram’ given by our elders.It still holds true
-Your body is the only place where you live. Take utmost care of it.
-Meditating for some time daily will calm your mind and will maintain positive outlook
-It is a scientific fact that stress causes hormonal imbalance
-Avoid unwanted factors in life, be it alcohol,smoke or excessive social media

3)Hormones check
-Most common cause of irreglar menses is hormonal imbalance
-Disorders of thyroid and prolactin hormones is commonly seen
-Diagnosis of these canditions can easily done in blood tests & subsequently medicines can be started
-PCOS(PCOD)- Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome- is another hormonal imbalnce disorder, which is now on a rise.Its diagnosis also depends on some specialized hormonal tests

-Sonography tells us the structure of uterus and ovaries
-Abnormalities can be detected and appropriate treatment offered
-In cases of PCOS, at times hormonal tests in blood come normal, but when we do sonography of ovaries, we come to know that PCOS is a likely diagnosis

-Taking prescribed medications on time is a must
-It may include hormonal or non-hormonal tablets
-Treatment may last uptoa period of 3-6 months
-Afterwards it is stopped
-Many a times normalization of menses occurs & no further treatment is required
-At times we also see cases where woman will experience recurrence of symptoms. These women will require repeat course of medicines

Missing Thread Of Copper-T – Where Has It Gone & What Should The Woman Do

Missing Thread Of Copper-T , Where Has It Gone & What Should The Woman Do

There are many effective contraceptive ( Birth Control ) methods available for women. Placement of a small device in the uterus is ons such method.Intra Uterine Contraceptive Device-IUCD,Intra Uterine Device-IUD are the medical terminology used for this method of birth control. In common man’s language the device is popularly know as’ Copper-T

In this article term ‘Copper-T ‘ is used synonymously for IUCD/IUD

What is Copper-T


-Cooper –T is a small T shaped device which is placed inside the uterus for the purpose of birth control (Contraception )
-The device once placed will be effective for 3, 5 or 10 years depending upon the type of device.
-The Copper –T is placed inside the uterus but the thread attached to it extends through mouth of uterus (Cervix ) into vagina.
-Checking of thread is done periodically to make sure that the device is in its place.

-Using a ‘Copper-T ‘ is a very popular and safe method of birth control.
-Each method of contraception has its own complications and faliure rates.
-The complications that we are going to discuss in this article are very rare.

Precautions Taken After Insertion Of Copper-T And Likely Complications

-After putting the Copper-T, the woman is called after one month, once her next menses is over.
-The Gynaecologist examines the woman and checks the thread
-At times the Gynaecologist will find that the thread is missing.
-Now, this situation can arise even in the first month after insertion or later on during the life span of Copper-T as cited earlier.


How To Safeguard Against Losing Copper-T

-Woman should come for first check up as advised by her Gynaecologist in a month after putting of Copper-T
-Subsequently a gynaec check up is suggested at 6 monthly intervals.
-Woman is also taught to palpate the thread herself.
-She is supposed to repeat this procedure every month. She should contact her Gynaecologist immediately if she finds that the thread is missing.
cut 7

What Could Have Happened To Copper-T If The Thread Is Found Missing

There are few possibilities-

1) Copper- T is expelled

It may happen that the Copper –T got expelled and the woman did not notice its expulsion.
Diagnosis of this condition is by exclusion

Sonography and X-ray of abdomen and pelvis is done. If both these tests come out normal and no Copper-T is found, the diagnosis of expelled Copper-T is made.

-Woman may come to the Gynaecologist in a pregnant state. Management of pregnancy depends on woman’s wish to either continue or discontinue with the pregnancy.

2) The Copper-T is malpositioned

-In this situation, the Copper-T stays inside the uterus but the thread has curled up inside the uterus.
-One more possibility is that the thread became loose & came out but the Copper-T stayed inside.
 Diagnosis is by Ultrasound.



-Copper-T is removed by a special instrument called ‘IUCD retrieval hook’. This procedure is done under anesthesia in operation theater.
-At times removal by Hysteroscopy becomes necessary.

3) Perforation of wall of uterus by Copper-T

-In this case patient may present with pain in abdomen and bleeding from vagina.


Ultrasound (Sonography ), X-Ray  of abdomen, CT-Scan or MRI is done to diagnose this condition.


Complications of perforation

– Formation of adhesions among intra abdominal organs. For example the intestines may stick together.
-Perforation of abdominal organs. For example intestines or urinary bladder may get perforated by IUD
-Formation of abnormal tracks between two organs (Fistulas ) .


Patient will require retrieval of Copper-T either by laparoscope or an open operation on abdomen will be required.


Oligohydramnios-Water Around Fetus Decreases During Pregnancy-How It Badly Effects Health Of Baby

Oligohydramnios-Water Around Fetus Decreases During Pregnancy-How It Badly  Effects  Health Of Baby


What is amniotic fluid
-Amniotic fluid is the fluid around fetus (Unborn baby in uterus)in which it swims during the course of the pregnancy. This is approximately 98% water.
-In a term pregnancy, total volume of fluid is around 2800 ml

Definition of Oligohydramnios
Abnormally decreased volume of amniotic fluid is called ‘Oligohydramnios”

No measurable pocket of amniotic fluid around baby

Source of amniotic fluid
Amniotic fluid is a secretion of fluid from various sources. The main sources are listed below
-Membranes and placenta surrounding baby
-Fetal skin
-Fetal urine production
-Fetal lung fluid

Importance of amniotic fluid
Amniotic fluid serves several roles during pregnancy
-It allows the fetus to have movements in the uterus. This helps in development of muscles and bones of the baby
-Fetus keeps on swallowing this fluid. This helps in development of intestines of the baby.
-It gives space so that fetal lungs can expand. This will help in development of lungs of baby and baby will breathe normally when born
-Fetus draws its blood supply, oxygen and nutrition from umbilical cord. Adequate amniotic fluid is necessary for its free movement and continuous supply.

What are trimesters of pregnancy
-The total duration of pregnancy that is 40 weeks is calculated as 9 months plus one week. Calculation is started from first day of last menses.
These 40 weeks are divided into three groups
-First trimester- include first 12 weeks
-Second trimester- weeks 13 -28
-Third trimester-29- 40weeks

Diagnosis of oligohydramnios
-Diagnosis is done by doing sonography ( Ultrasound) .Overall quantity of fluid is estimated .
-Colour Doppler studies of umbilical artery will tell if fetus is receiving enough blood supply.
-NST- Non Stress Test- a tracing of fetal heart rate pattern is a good indicator of baby’s well being

When does it happen
Early onset

When oligohydramnios is detected in early second trimester .

1) By 18 weeks of pregnancy fetal kidneys are the main source of amniotic fluid. Those fetal abnormalities which will result in decreased fetal urine production as the kidneys are not properly formed or there is obstruction in passage of urine will give rise to oligohydramnios. A few major genitor-urinary abnormalities are
-Renal agenesis (non formation of kidneys )
-Multicystic dysplastic kidney ( Kidneys are malformed and have multiple fluid filled structures in it)
-Polycystic kidneys ( Kidneys have multiple cysts)
-Bladder outlet obstruction ( urine is forming normally but can’t come out of bladder  as the outlet has obstruction)

-Posterior urethral valves ( urethra is the tube like structure which will let the urine come out of bladder- if there are valves preventing the urination-oligohydramnios develops)
-Urethral atresia- urethra is not completely formed

2) Rupture of bag of membranes which is around the fetus.  This will clinically present as watery discharge from vaginal. There may be bleeding too. Later on patient may complain of pain in lower abdomen which is associated with uterine contractions.

Mid pregnancy onset
When decrease in amniotic fluid happens in late second trimester or early third trimester.
In these times , oligohydramnios is associated with
-Suboptimal fetal growth- IUGR ( Intra Uterine Growth Retardation )
-Placental abnormality-Placenta is not working at its optimal level and blood supply in it is less.
-Pregnancy induced hypertension ( High BP ) clinically known as PIH

Post term pregnancy onset
When the pregnant woman has crossed the due date, oligohydramnios may set in
It is usually because of suboptimal functioning of placental surfaces.

Medicines responsible
Some medicines if taken in pregnancy for a long time will lead to development of oligohydramnios
All medications in pregnancy should be taken on advice of expert gynaecologist

Prognosis (outcome) of oligohydramnios
If pregnancy is complicated by oligohydramnios-the baby will suffer many abnormalities

Potter’s syndrome– it is a combination of three features
1) Limb contractures- hands and legs may have abnormal shape
2) Compressed face- face looks abnormal
3) Death of fetus  from pulmonary hypoplasia- the lungs are underdeveloped and do not support the life of baby

Many other adverse fetal effects are also associated with oligohydramnios
-Fetal malformations
-Stillbirth- a dead baby is born
-Preterm birth
-Increased chances of Cesarean delivery
-Low birth weight of the newborn which will require care in NICU- Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
-Neonatal death- baby expires soon after being born
– Meconium aspiration- baby passes stool even before it is born. This fecal matter/ stool (Meconium) is ingested by the baby and chokes up the respiratory tract, hence leading to difficulty in breathing after being born.

Management of oligohydramnios
-Management of oligohydramnios requires close fetal monitoring by available diagnostic modalities like sonography and NST
-Medicinal support to increase the blood flow to uterus and baby and to help the fetus gain weight. These medicines have limited effectiveness.
-Timely delivery of the baby as soon as the maturity of the baby is achieved.