Category: Uncategorized

Protecting from Cervical Cancer

PROTECTING WOMEN OF YOUR FAMILY FROM CERVICAL CANCER-NOW POSSIBLE

  • Cervical Cancer is the most common cancer affecting Indian women
  • It is a preventable disease
  • You can protect yourselves and your daughters and be almost 100% safe with a combination of vaccination and screening

    Normal:
  • Normal cells multiply all the time
  • Old cells die and fall off
  • New, completely formed, mature cells replace them
  • They take over the regular functionCancer…..normal gone berserk:
    » Normal mechanism can be disturbed by many factors (ex: virus, chemicals in Tobacco, repeated damage)
    » Cancer cells are abnormal cells which multiply too fast
    » Old cells refuse to die
    » New cells don’t mature but keep growing – become a bulk called “Tumour”
    » Cannot function normally and start competing with the normal cells
    » Can spread and grow anywhere else in the body and choke off the normal cells Normal mechanism can be disturbed by many factors (Ex : virus, chemicals in Tobacco, repeated damage)A virus
    HPV  -Human Papilloma Virus)HPV 16
    HPV 18
    >75% of Cervical Cancer5,6

    » Large number of women get HPV infection sometime during life time (80% by the age of 50).
    » There are no symptoms – you may not know you have it
    » Majority would clear infection without developing any disease.
    » Few women develop precancerous lesions and cervical cancer over a period of time (few months to 9 years).
    We don’t know which ones will!

    Cervical Cancer is the commonest cancer in Indian Women

    200 women die every day in India
    8 women die every hour
    1 woman every 7 minutes

    India makes up only 16% of the world’s population
    But has 27% of the world’s total cervical cancer cases and deaths every year

    India : 1,32,082
    World : 4,93,243
    Deaths due to cervical cancer annually
    India : 74,118
    World : 2,73,505

  • Usually no symptoms in early stage
  • When advanced, there can be the following symptoms:
    • A little bleeding between periods
    • Bleeding after sexual intercourse
    • Abnormal vaginal discharge
    • Sometimes – pain
      • During intercourse
      • Continuous
      • Low back-ache
  • Unexplained loss of weight
    Pail face and nails (anemia)
  • Treatment options depend on the following:
    • The stage of the cancer.
    • The size of the tumor.
    • Your age.
    • Your desire to have children.
  • Conservative treatment
    (save the uterus and part of the cervix)
  • Burn the abnormal part of cervix with electric current
    (electro-cautery)
  • Destroy the abnormal area by freezing it
    (cold co-agulation)
  • Surgery
    • Medium spread of cancer – remove uterus with cervix, tubes and ovary
      • Good chance of survival
      • Can’t have babies
  • Late Stage
    • Extensive surgery removing other parts of the body as well
    • Needs radiation therapy and chemotherapy
    • Chances of survival vary

How can you protect yourself?

A smooth, sterilized instrument is gently inserted to see the cervix

A small spatula or brush is swiped across the cervix to loosen cells
The brush is smeared on a clean glass slide
The slide is later examined by an expert to spot abnormal cells

What you should know about vaccination

  • Vaccination is the only true form of “prevention” – stops the disease from happening in the first place
  • There are two vaccines available today:
    • Quadrivalent (“four type”)
      • Protects from 6,11,16,18
      • Partial protection from 33, 35, 41 and 7 other types
  • Bivalent (“two type”)
    • Protects from 16, 18
  • Partial protection from 33, 35 and 41

How does the vaccine work?
It gets your body to produce antibodies against the HPV virus. These antibodies protect your body from an HPV infection by fighting the virus when it tries to attack the cervix.

Who should take the vaccine and when?
Ideally, the vaccine should be taken as early as possible after the age of 9 years but girls and women of any age up to 45 can benefit from this vaccine.  Expectant mothers should not take the vaccine during their pregnancy.

How does the vaccine work?
It gets your body to produce antibodies against the HPV virus. These antibodies protect your body from an HPV infection by fighting the virus when it tries to attack the cervix.

Who should take the vaccine and when?
Ideally, the vaccine should be taken as early as possible after the age of 9 years but girls and women of any age up to 45 can benefit from this vaccine.  Expectant mothers should not take the vaccine during their pregnancy.

 

Routine blood tests during pregnancy

SIGNIFICANCE OF DOING ROUTINE BLOOD TESTS DURING PREGNANCY

When the good news of pregnancy is first confirmed and the lady consults a gynaecologist, she is advised to take certain blood tests.

In the eye of the commoner, the list may be overwhelming as it goes like this:-

CBC-Complete blood count including hemoglobin
Blood group and Rh Factor
Urinalysis
Blood sugar levels in fasting and PP-Post Prandial state (two hours after food)
HIV testing- Infection screen from Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HBsAg testing-Infection screen from Hepatitis B Virus
VDRL testing- Infection screen from syphilis disease
TSH– screening tests for thyroid disorder

Let’s take each test one by one and try to solve the mystery behind the question-“Why should I do so many tests? I am perfectly healthy.”

First, get that straight that the sub-section of female population who become pregnant are essentially healthy. Why, because the age group 20-35 years enjoys good health naturally.

These tests are done on all pregnant females and are aimed at picking out those cases in which it is not so.

Abortion by pills vs Traditional D&C

ABORTION BY PILLS

Benefits

  • No hospital admission is required
  • No risk of anesthesia complications Only thing required of you is to take the oral tablets as instructed
  • No instrument inserted in the uterus, hence less complications
  • Privacy Assurance-To carry out abortion,signature of the woman only is sufficient,If the woman is of age 18 years and above, regardless of marital status

Limitations

  • It is a safer approach when the duration of pregnancy is 45 days or less corresponding to within 15 days of missed periods

TRADITIONAL D&C-SURGICAL

Benefits

  • One day stay in hospital is mandatory
  • Inherent anesthesia risk present
  • You are required to undergo surgical procedure
  • Inherent risk of surgical instrumentation present
  • In case of hospitalization, due formalities need to be carried out

Limitations

  • Termination is permitted till 20 weeks , corresponding to 4.5 months of pregnancy,with due precaution and considering indications

A FEW SAFETY MEASURES BEFORE TAKING ABORTION PILLS
-Performing of basic blood investigations like-Hemoglobin, Blood Sugar, Urine analysis
-An ultrasonography to determine the duration and site of pregnancy is advisable
-A repeat ultrasonography after few days of taking the pills, to check whether the procedure is complete

Double Marker Test -When,Why & How

DOUBLE MARKER TEST-WHEN,WHY AND HOW OF IT ..

  • Every parent would like to have a physically and mentally healthy child, RIGHT?
  • Ultrasound is a successful tool to ensure proper physical development of the baby in uterus.
  • What about mental ability?
  • Has science advanced to a level that we can ascertain the baby’s mental ability to a large extent
    Yes, it has
  • Only a family, having to live with a mentally handicap person, can tell the trauma it causes in the child’s as well as the caretakers lives.
  • So, if possible, wouldn’t we want to avoid that?
  • Yes , we would and now there are tests available to help us out
    What is the basis of the test?
  • The baby is very much part of mother’s body and so are its hormones
  • An estimation of baby’s hormones are done at a specific duration of pregnancy-say 11-13 weeks
    An ultrasound is also done to see two specific features in the developing baby- namely(1) presence of bone of nose(2) thickness of nape of neck
  • Now, these values are statistically compared to those women who gave birth to normal children
  • If the values match with the normal population, a report of ‘low risk’ is issued and the test is declared as NORMAL
  • So, what exactly a pregnant lady need to do?
  • Undergo two things-An ultrasound and a blood test at a time suggested by your doctor
  • In rare cases the values don’t match and an ABNORMAL ‘high risk’ report comes
  • These cases will now require further testing in a specialized genetic centers to confirm or refute the diagnosis
  • This screening test is now being recommended to all patients regardless of maternal age

White discharge – Vaginal Infection

When And Why To See A Doctor

  • White discharge is a common complaint of women seeking consultation from a Gynaecologist
  • Every menstruating woman will experience increase in white discharge in the middle of the cycle for a couple of days which is a normal phenomenon.
  • It does not require specific treatment and settles on its own

    So,when should a doctor be consulted.

  • When white discharge has lasted for many days.
  • When it has foul odour and stains underclothes
  • When it is associated with pain in lower abdomen.
  • When it is associated with frequency of urination and itching of private parts

    What causes this white discharge

  • Most of the times it is caused by fungal or bacterial infection.

    What kind of treatment is given for it.

  • Oral treatment consists of taking antifungal and antibiotics tablets
  • Local treatment consists of creams to be applied to private parts
  • Some medicated capsules /tablets called pessaries are meant to be inserted in the vagina and left there to take effect overnight
  • Vaginal washes also help

    What if the complain comes back again and again

  • This happens when the general health of the woman is not good.
  • In this case certain blood tests and a specialized screening test for cancer of mouth of uterus (cervix) is carried out which is popularly known as Pap’s smear

White Discharge

WHITE DISCHARGE -VAGINAL INFECTION -ITCHING OF PRIVATE PARTS 

When And Why To See A Doctor
» White discharge is a common complaint of women seeking consultation from a Gynaecologist
» Every menstruating woman will experience increase in white discharge in the middle of the cycle for a couple of days which is a normal phenomenon
» It does not require specific treatment and settles on its own
So,when should a doctor be consulted.
When white discharge has lasted for many days.
When it has foul odour and stains underclothes
When it is associated with pain in lower abdomen.
When it is associated with frequency of urination and itching of private parts

What causes this white discharge 

Most of the times it is caused by fungal or bacterial infection.

What kind of treatment is given for it.

Oral treatment consists of taking antifungal and antibiotics tablets

Local treatment consists of creams to be applied to private parts

Some medicated capsules /tablets called pessaries are meant to be inserted in the vagina and left there to take effect overnight

Vaginal washes also help
What if the complain comes back again and again 

This happens when the general health of the woman is not good.

In this case certain blood tests and a specialized screening test for cancer of mouth of uterus (cervix) is carried out which is popularly known as Pap’s smear


Double Marker Test

DOUBLE MARKER TEST-WHEN,WHY AND HOW OF IT

  • Every parent would like to have a physically and mentally healthy child, RIGHT?
  • Ultrasound is a successful tool to ensure proper physical development of the baby in uterus.
  • What about mental ability?
  • Has science advanced to a level that we can ascertain the baby’s mental ability to a large extent
    Yes, it has
  • Only a family, having to live with a mentally handicap person, can tell the trauma it causes in the child’s as well as the caretakers lives.
  • So, if possible, wouldn’t we want to avoid that?
  • Yes , we would and now there are tests available to help us out
    What is the basis of the test?
  • The baby is very much part of mother’s body and so are its hormones
  • An estimation of baby’s hormones are done at a specific duration of pregnancy-say 11-13 weeks
    An ultrasound is also done to see two specific features in the developing baby- namely(1) presence of bone of nose(2) thickness of nape of neck
  • Now, these values are statistically compared to those women who gave birth to normal children
    If the values match with the normal population, a report of ‘low risk’ is issued and the test is declared as NORMAL
  • So, what exactly a pregnant lady need to do?
  • Undergo two things-An ultrasound and a blood test at a time suggested by your doctor
    In rare cases the values don’t match and an ABNORMAL ‘high risk’ report comes
  • These cases will now require further testing in a specialized genetic centers to confirm or refute the diagnosis
    This screening test is now being recommended to all patients regardless of maternal age

 

Routine Blood Tests of Pregnancy

SIGNIFICANCE OF DOING ROUTINE BLOOD TESTS DURING PREGNANCY

When the good news of pregnancy is first confirmed and the lady consults a gynaecologist, she is advised to take certain blood tests.

In the eye of the commoner, the list may be overwhelming as it goes like this:-

-CBC-Complete blood count including hemoglobin
-Blood group and Rh Factor
-Urinalysis
-Blood sugar levels in fasting and PP-Post Prandial state (two hours after food)
-HIV testing- Infection screen from Human Immunodeficiency Virus
-HBsAg testing-Infection screen from Hepatitis B Virus
-VDRL testing- Infection screen from syphilis disease
– TSH- screening tests for thyroid disorder

Let’s take each test one by one and try to solve the mystery behind the question-“Why should I do so many tests? I am perfectly healthy.”

First, get that straight that the sub-section of female population who become pregnant are essentially healthy. Why, because the age group 20-35 years enjoys good health naturally.

These tests are done on all pregnant females and are aimed at picking out those cases in which it is not so.

 

Abortion by Pills

ABORTION BY PILLS

Benefits

» No hospital admission is required
» No risk of anesthesia complications
» Only thing required of you is to take the oral tablets as instructed
» No instrument inserted in the uterus, hence less complications
» Privacy Assurance-To carry out abortion,signature of the woman only is sufficient,If the woman is of age 18 years  and above, regardless of marital status

Limitations

It is a safer approach when the duration of pregnancy is 45 days or less corresponding to within 15 days of missed periods

TRADITIONAL D&C-SURGICAL

Benefits

» One day stay in hospital is mandatory
»  Inherent anesthesia risk present
»  You are required to undergo surgical procedure
»  Inherent risk of surgical instrumentation present
»  In case of hospitalization, due formalities need to be carried out

Limitations

Termination is permitted till 20 weeks , corresponding to 4.5 months of pregnancy,with due precaution and considering indications

A FEW SAFETY MEASURES BEFORE TAKING ABORTION PILLS

-Performing of basic blood investigations like-Hemoglobin, Blood Sugar, Urine analysis
-An ultrasonography to determine the duration and site of pregnancy is advisable
-A repeat ultrasonography after few days of taking the pills, to check whether the procedure is complete