Why is semen analysis an important test for male infertility
How is follicular study done
When a Gynaecologist is investigating a female patient for infertility, Follicular study is one of the first line investigations that are prescribed.
Female fertility cycle is very unique .A normal fertile woman menstruates once in a month.
Once the menstrual cycle is over, growth and maturation of ova starts. Somewhere in the middle of the cycle around 14th -16th day, ovulation occurs and released ova is picked up by Fallopian tube and is ready to be fertilized by sperm , hence occurs origin of life.
Follicular study is an ultrasonographic investigation done serially every 2nd or 3rd day starting generally from Day 6 or 8 of menstrual cycle. This study is deemed complete once it has detected ovulation.
Clinical importance lies in the fact that once Gynaecologist knows that ovulation has occurred,further treatment to help her conceive can be offered eg-timed intercourse, IUI-Intra uterine insemination.
Oral contraceptive pills, are they safe?
Once a couple requests of oral contraceptive pills as a method of family planning to their Gynecologist, a complete body check up of the lady will be done and some blood tests will be suggested.
After seeing the normal report, once a day regular oral contraceptive pills will be prescribed.
Government of India also promotes this method of family planning and spacing between children.
How common is the misuse of emergency contraceptive pills?
It is commonly seen in the gynecology clinical practice that many unmarried women as well as married ones too will take emergency contraceptive pills repeatedly, without doctor’s prescription after having had unprotected intercourse.
The fact that these pills are available over the counter, facilitates this .
The emergency contraceptive pill contains very high dose of hormones. This may delay the next menses or may make it iretcregular
If a lady is in stable relationship, she is advised to adopt regular methods of contraception like once a day regular oral contraceptive pill, condoms etc.
What are the most common reasons for having irregular menstrual cycle?
Having irregular menstrual cycle is a very common complaint. Either the menses come very late or the bleeding is not proper.
The most common reasons for this type of clinical picture are hormonal imbalance.
-Thyroid hormone is less-hypothyroidism
-PCOS- Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome- Imbalance of multiple hormones like LH( Leutinizing Hormone) and FSH( Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
-Prolactin hormone is high- hyperprolactinemia.
What are the required tests and treatment for irregular menses?
-Your Gynaecologist will suggest some hormonal tests in blood. An ultrasound of pelvis will also be suggested.
-Depending on the test results, hormonal treatment of 3-6 months duration may be suggested to you
Dilemma in diagnosing early pregnancy
Cases of infertility are on rise.
Couples spent many months taking treatment for getting pregnant.
As soon as periods are missed, they become very happy.
The tests to diagnose early pregnancy are
1) Urine pregnancy test
2) Beta HCG
I have missed my periods. How can I be sure that I am pregnant?
A) There are three ways of knowing
1)Pregnancy test in urine
2)Blood test- Serum Beta HCG
I am having to go to pass urine frequently and its burns when I pass urine. There is pain in lower abdomen too. What may be the cause? What should I do?
These symptoms are suggestive of urine infection. You should get the urine test done and start antibiotics course on advice of your doctor
There is a family function at home and my periods are coinciding with it. Is there any medicine that can be taken now so that I can prepone it?
There are no medicines available to prepone menses. However, hormonal medicines can be taken on advice of Gynaecologist which can postpone the menses.
I am newly married woman and don’t want to become pregnant. What precaution can I use?
Oral contraceptive pills are a very good option. Seek your doctor’s advice before starting and to know how to take them correctly. They are coitus independent, free from side effects and have very good efficacy. You can also ask your husband to use condoms regularly.
My family is completed and I want to go for permanent sterilization. Will my menses become irregular if I do operation?
Permanent sterilization operation for females involves surgical blocking of Fallopian tubes. Ovarian and uterine function which are responsible for getting menses remain undisturbed. Your menses will remain normal after tubectomy operation.
Presenting features of pregnancy with Copper-T in situ
-Woman will complain of missed periods
-Her pregnancy test will be positive
-Sonography will show presence of contraceptive device with pregnancy side by side
My periods have become irregular over past few months. They come late and the flow is very less. What may be the problem?
These symptoms are of hormonal disturbance. PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) is the most common clinical situation. A Gynaec checkup is necessary along with blood tests and sonography. Treatment is available.